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As an employer you have an obligation to provide your employees with a written payslip for each payment they receive. This doesn’t have to be a paper document, and you might provide it digitally. Payslips contain a lot of information though, and employees often find them quite confusing. It’s usually worth explaining what each bit means so your staff know what’s happening, and can identify any issues if they need to.

Do I have to give employees a payslip?

What do payslips need to include?

What else could a payslip include?

What does the tax code mean?

P45 and P60

What payroll records do I need to keep?

Absolutely, yes. You should always provide a payslip either before, or at the same time as, making a payment. This is so that employees have a record of what to expect, and can flag any errors or queries.

This includes casual workers as well as full-time employees, but it doesn’t include independent contractors or freelancers. Any workers who are employed through an agency will normally receive their pay via the agency, who will also provide the payslip. If you pay them directly then it’s your responsibility to supply one.

The payslip must be individual to each employee and kept private, so sending them out in an all-staff email is a major no-no! If you provide payslips digitally, you should make it clear to employees how they can access them.

If you’re a new employer and not sure what to do, read our New Employer’s Guide.


Including key information on payslips is useful for staff so they have a clear record of how much they earn, and what deductions have been made. Some of the terminology can be a bit confusing if you don’t deal with it day to day, so we’ve included an explanation as well as a list of what to include.

What the payslips says What it means
Benefits Sometimes shown as ‘workplace benefits’, this includes information about any perks the employee receives, such as health insurance or a company car.
Employee identifier This is what the employer uses to identify the employee’s unique record in the payroll system and HR records. It might be their name, a payroll number, or both.
Gross pay The amount of pay before any deductions are made.
Hours, days, or any other time period worked This depends on how employees get paid; for instance, if paid an hourly rate, this will show the number of hours worked.
Income tax deductions How much income tax the employer deducts from the employee’s wages (which they will then pay on to HMRC through PAYE).
Net pay The amount the employee will receive after all deductions are taken out. It’s sometimes also known as ‘take home pay’.
National Insurance Contributions, sometimes shown as NICs or just NI How much National Insurance the employer has deducted from the employee’s wages (which they will then pay on to HMRC through PAYE).

The payslip only needs to show the employee’s NIC, not the employer’s contributions, although sometimes both are included. When the new rules kick in, the payslip must also show the Health & Social Care Levy as a separate amount.

Pension contributions Any deductions from the employee’s pay towards their workplace pension. The payslip can show employer contributions too (and it’s usually a good idea to) but that isn’t mandatory.
SAP Statutory Adoption Pay. Employees might also receive workplace adoption pay (paid by the employer), which is shown on a separate line.
SMP Statutory Maternity Pay. Employees might also receive workplace maternity pay (paid by the employer), which is shown on a separate line.
SPP Statutory Paternity Pay. Employees might also receive workplace paternity pay (paid by the employer), which is shown on a separate line
SSP Statutory Sick Pay. Employees might also receive workplace sick pay (paid by the employer), which is shown on a separate line.
Student loans Sometimes also shown as SLC (for Student Loans Company), this shows how much has been deducted from an employee’s wages to repay their student loan. The payslip might also show what type of student loan they are on.
Tax code Tax codes are allocated by HMRC, and used by employers to deduct the right amount of income tax.
Total fixed deductions The total of any fixed deductions, such as union fees or employer’s loan repayments.

The payslip don’t have to provide a detailed breakdown of fixed deductions as long as this information is provided on an annual statement.

YTD This stands for ‘Year To Date’ and is the total of what has been paid so far this tax year. For instance, the total amount of NI the employee has paid, total amount of salary, and so on.


Still with us? There might be other items to include too, such as:


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There are items that you might decide to include, but they’re optional:

Every employee is given a tax code around the beginning of each tax year, or when something happens to change its status, like moving to a new employer.

Tax codes show the amount of income allowed from that particular employment before the employer starts deducting tax.


To find the annual tax-free amount, multiply the numbers in the tax code by 10 (or add a “0”). For example, the standard tax code for an employee with no adjustments to it is 1257L. This represents the standard personal allowance of £12,570 for 2023/24, because this is how much an employee can earn before starting to pay tax on their income.

The “L” explains the tax code status and means that this is a normal unaltered tax code.

Are all tax codes the same?

Not always, although most employees are likely to have the 1257L tax code. The numerical part may be different for several reasons, each of which is explained by a different letter at the end.

For example

If the employee has more than one employer, it is quite normal for only one of the employers to deduct all of the tax due for both employments.

So, if the employee has used all their personal allowance in the pay from their main employer’s tax code, the second employer may be told to apply a “0000 BR” code. This means that there is zero personal allowance applied to this employment and all the pay will be taxed at the basic rate.

Another common code is one that ends in “K”. This means that the code is effectively negative. So, the corresponding number, multiplied by 10, is added to the earnings from this employer and taxed.

One reason for this might be where another employment is not being taxed, and the earnings from it exceed the personal allowance. Another is where unpaid tax from a previous year is being collected through the PAYE system.

HMRC publish a full list of the letters in tax codes, and an explanation of what they mean.

What are emergency tax codes?

HMRC normally only apply an emergency tax code if they don’t have enough information to provide the correct code. This means that the employee will pay ‘emergency tax’, usually a higher rate, to make sure they don’t underpay.

Emergency tax codes can be shown by several different letters, and will normally be replaced as soon as the missing information is provided to HMRC.

Every employee is issued a P60 just after the end of each tax year. This is a summary of the total tax paid for that employment for the previous year.

A P45 is a bit different, and this is issued to an employee at the end of their employment. It shows the tax paid in relation to that employment in the current tax year (because it might not always helpfully be at the end of the tax year).

If you’re taking on a new employee it’s usually easier if they have a P45, but they might not always have one. This might be because they’re starting a second job, or this is their first ever employment. You can still take them on, and ask them to complete a new starter form to collect all of the information HMRC will need to assign a tax code correctly. There’s a good chance they’ll be given an emergency tax code otherwise.

As an employer, you must keep copies of all employee payslips, as well as a record of the calculations used to work them out. This includes information about each aspect of these calculations. For instance, if you pay holiday pay, you must keep a record of the employee’s leave. If the employee takes time off sick, you must have a record of when the absence started and ended, as well the details of any sick pay.

Learn more about our payroll services for businesses. Talk to the team on live chat, call 020 3355 4047, or get an instant online quote.

About The Author

Suzanne Goodier-Dodson

I'm a Payroll Manager with a degree in Mathematics, responsible for overseeing every aspect of payroll for our clients. In my spare time, I love to travel and going to gigs. Read my Staff Spotlight.

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